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All You Need To Know About Starting A Legal Grow Op In The United States

So, you want to set up a small grow op. There are lots of reasons why you might want to start growing — maybe you want to always have your own supply of therapeutic plants on hand, or maybe somebody in your household needs consistent access to therapeutic plants; maybe you’re already a gardener and you want to expand your repertoire, or maybe you’re interested in becoming a commercial grower someday and you want to learn the ropes with a small grow op. If you live in one of the 33 states that have legalized the use of medicinal crops, you may qualify to start growing for personal use.

Starting a legal grow op isn’t an option for everybody, even for those in states that have legalized therapeutic crops for medical or adult recreational use. For example, you can grow these crops in Arizona only if you are a registered patient or a caregiver for a patient, and you live more than 25 miles from the nearest dispensary. In New York, you can not grow your own therapeutic plants under any circumstances.

How To Start A Small Grow Op

Every state has different regulations in place for licensed commercial growers and individuals growing for personal use. In this article, we’ll focus on the rules that apply to small home growers who want to grow therapeutic plants for themselves and others in their households.

Get To Know Your State’s Regulations

Growing regulations vary from state to state. The rules that apply to your friend’s grow op in Oregon won’t apply to your grow in California, and in some cases, your location within a state determines which regulations apply to your grow. For example, Nevada law prohibits individuals from growing therapeutic crops if they live within 25 miles of a state-licensed dispensary.

Websites for local law firms or legal info databases like Nolo won’t tell the whole story about the licenses you’ll need and the requirements you’ll have to follow to operate a legal grow in your state. Although there is quality information on these kinds of websites, they are published by private parties rather than the state, which means there’s no guarantee the information on the pages is accurate or up to date. It’s a safer bet to get regulatory information on how to start a small grow op directly from websites operated by your state government, including websites operated by county governments — in other words, only from websites whose URLs end in “.gov.”

Operating a therapeutic grow op outside of state regulations can subject you to criminal charges, and following incorrect regulatory information found on the internet is not a valid defense for this type of charge.

The state you live in and its specific laws will determine how many plants you can grow at once. For example, if you live in California, you can have up to six plants in your indoor grow. For those who live in Alaska, the limit is also six plants, but only three may be mature at one time. If you’re in Michigan, you can have up to 12 plants at a time.

Some states also specify where you can build your indoor grow. In North Dakota, for example, therapeutic crops may not be grown within 1,000 feet of a school.

What Kind Of Grower Do You Want To Be?

A lot of indoor growers grow hydroponically — but you don’t have to. You can grow in coco coir or soil instead. Soil is the least expensive growing medium, so it may be the best option when starting your first indoor grow. The soil itself is inexpensive, and it doesn’t require the additional equipment hydroponic growing requires, such as nutrient and air pumps. If you’re wondering how to start a small grow op on a small budget, soil is usually the way to go.

Growing in soil also tends to be simpler than growing in other media, which makes it a popular choice for first-time growers. However, you also have less control over the growing process when you use soil.

The medium you choose determines the growing products you’ll need, which is a consideration when you’re creating your budget. Check out this overview of the nutrients your crops need and nutrient considerations growers need to make.

Another consideration to make involves the specific crop species you want to cultivate. Some strains are more productive than others, and some are hardier than others. Research the different strains to determine a crop that suits your needs based on:

  • The type of consumption experience you’re after
  • Your budget
  • Your growing experience

Map Out Your Growing Space

Once you’ve determined whether you’ll be growing hydroponically, in coco coir, or in soil, the next step is to create a rough sketch of what your grow’s setup will look like. This will give you an idea of the structures you’ll need — like ductwork and plumbing feeds — and a sense of how to efficiently use your space. Read how to size up your grow space and plan out how you’ll use it.

The specific steps you’ll need to take during this stage of planning your first indoor grow are:

  • Setting up the grow room ventilation
  • Routing your water supply if you plan to grow hydroponically
  • Establishing a CO2 supply in the grow room
  • Running wires to ensure that you have electrical hookups around the room
  • Positioning grow lights around the room so every plant has sufficient access to light
  • Insulating the room

Create A Realistic Budget

Once your small grow op setup is mapped out, it’s time to crunch some numbers. When planning a budget, keep the financial estimates on the higher end, so if the final expenses come in under budget, you’ll save some cash. If the expenses come in over budget, however, you’ll run into challenges in getting the indoor garden up and running. Read how to calculate your lighting and insulation needs.

Startup purchases you’ll need to make include:

  • Fans
  • Climate control system
  • Intake filter
  • Lighting fixtures
  • Plumbing fixtures
  • Medium-specific expenses. Soil growers need to buy soil, manure and pots; hydroponic growers need to buy the equipment necessary for the system, they decide to use

You should also budget for potential permit costs and contractors’ expenses. Don’t try to save money by skimping on these — subpar work can cost you in home repairs down the line, and unpermitted work can subject you to fines, insurance increases and difficulty selling the home later.

Going beyond the startup budget, running an indoor grow op eats up utility costs every month, so these need to be part of your long-term budget.

One of the most important financial considerations is the cost of running grow lights. This cost can vary depending on the type of light and how many you use. Also consider what it’ll cost to keep your grow room at an appropriate temperature and humidity level. Read about the importance of maintaining a safe humidity level and how you can maintain yours. You also might need to run an air conditioning system, because when there are grow lights and other electronic devices running, it’s going to get hot. Learn how to calculate your grow room’s cooling needs.

Your budget will change over time. Build in a safety net for equipment failures and human error, as every grower will face those at some point. Because this is your first grow op, start small and learn from your mistakes.

Get All The Growing Info You Need

Growing your own therapeutic crops is a great hobby. Sign up for our newsletter to get valuable information on growing topics delivered straight to your inbox. We publish articles on everything growers need to know, from growing technology to how you can maximize the output of your crops.


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The Advanced Nutrients Team

Since 1999, Advanced Nutrients has been committed to educating the community and bringing the most up-to-date knowledge to the forefront of grows across the globe. Every article you read here has been curated by Advanced Nutrients’ industry experts, so you can continue raising your bud weight… and your reputation.

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Over time, components within the nutrients settle on the bottom of the bottle. When you pour a bottle without shaking it, you can potentially be pouring out an unbalanced solution. Shaking up the nutrient bottle ensures you are pouring the right blend into your reservoir, giving your crops the nutrition they need.

Usually, it’s not a problem. But some products are incompatible with each other and can damage your plants when they’re used together. For example, bloom boosters with high PK numbers or low-grade silica products can destabilize your nutrient mix and cause nutrient lockout.

Nutrient manufacturers design their products to be used with each other. In doing so, they include specific portions of each nutrient in each product, so crops receive the right nutrition through each stage of the grow cycle. When you stick with one manufacturer, you don’t have to worry about inadvertently destabilizing your nutrient mixture. One example of why you need to stick with only one manufacturer’s products is Advanced Nutrients’ pH Perfect line. These products are designed to keep your crops’ root zone within a specific pH range. When you use them alongside products from another manufacturer, we can’t guarantee your root zone will maintain its optimal pH level.

Yes! If you’re growing with Advanced Nutrients products, you can use our easy nutrient calculator to generate the correct nutrient chart for your crops in seconds. Check out Advanced Nutrients’ nutrient calculator here. Another great resource is our library of free custom-growing recipes. Try our expert grower-tested nutrient schedules here.

You can also download our official BudLabs app to generate nutrient schedules and receive real-time notifications for specific tasks, including feeding your crops. Upgrade to BudLabs Pro to maintain profiles on an unlimited number of crops.

If you are a grower, visit this link to find the closest Advanced Nutrients Authorized Retailer. If you are a retailer, visit this link to identify our official distributors.

Our greatest passion is growing great cannabis—and helping other growers do the same. That’s why we offer complimentary cultivation support 24/7 from Monday to Friday and from 9 AM until 7 PM PST on Saturday… With the same level of advice licensed producers would pay consultants tens of thousands of dollars to unlock.
Just call 1-800-640-9605 or email support@advancednutrients.com. For Spanish-speaking growers, email spanishsupport@advancednutrients.com.

Yes! If for any reason you are not absolutely thrilled with the results you achieve when you use our products, just bring the unused portion, along with your original sales receipt, back to the place of purchase within six months, and ask for your money back. Find out more about our Grower Guarantee here.

Advanced Nutrients has spent many thousands of man-hours developing a technology that automatically balances your pH for you — putting it in the “sweet spot” and holding it there for one week.

And the technology is so “smart” that it can account for many of the aforementioned variables in your grow room. Our proprietary pH buffering agents and stabilizing mechanisms became the foundation of a new system aptly called pH Perfect® Technology. Learn all about it here.

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